The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers. The curve is broken into carl rogers theory of personality development pdf of adopters. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory are varied and span multiple disciplines.
Rogers proposes that four main elements influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation itself, communication channels, time, and a social system. The innovation must be widely adopted in order to self-sustain. Diffusion manifests itself in different ways and is highly subject to the type of adopters and innovation-decision process. The criterion for the adopter categorization is innovativeness, defined as the degree to which an individual adopts a new idea. United States in the 1920s and 1930s.
Agriculture technology was advancing rapidly, and researchers started to examine how independent farmers were adopting hybrid seeds, equipment, and techniques. In organizational studies, its basic epidemiological or internal-influence form was formulated by H. Using his synthesis, Rogers produced a theory of the adoption of innovations among individuals and organizations. Rogers’ later books are among the most often cited in diffusion research. Inventions are a broad category, relative to the current knowledge of the analyzed unit.
Any idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption could be considered an invention available for study. Adopters are the minimal unit of analysis. Diffusion, by definition, takes place among people or organizations. Communication channels allow the transfer of information from one unit to the other. Communication patterns or capabilities must be established between parties as a minimum for diffusion to occur. There are many roles in a social system, and their combination represents the total influences on a potential adopter. Studies have explored many characteristics of innovations.
Meta-reviews have identified several characteristics that are common among most studies. These are in line with the characteristics that Rogers initially cited in his reviews. These qualities interact and are judged as a whole. For example, an innovation might be extremely complex, reducing its likelihood to be adopted and diffused, but it might be very compatible with a large advantage relative to current tools.
Even with this high learning curve, potential adopters might adopt the innovation anyway. Studies also identify other characteristics of innovations, but these are not as common as the ones that Rogers lists above. The fuzziness of the boundaries of the innovation can impact its adoption. Specifically, innovations with a small core and large periphery are easier to adopt. Innovations that are less risky are easier to adopt as the potential loss from failed integration is lower.
Innovations that are disruptive to routine tasks, even when they bring a large relative advantage, might not be adopted because of added instability. Likewise, innovations that make tasks easier are likely to be adopted. Closely related to relative complexity, knowledge requirements are the ability barrier to use presented by the difficulty to use the innovation. Even when there are high knowledge requirements, support from prior adopters or other sources can increase the chances for adoption. Like innovations, adopters have been determined to have traits that affect their likelihood to adopt an innovation. A bevy of individual personality traits have been explored for their impacts on adoption, but with little agreement. Ability and motivation, which vary on situation unlike personality traits, have a large impact on a potential adopter’s likelihood to adopt an innovation.