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A “military citizenship” arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Historians, political scientists and other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each interpretation of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions too wide or narrow. According to many scholars, fascism—especially once in power—has historically attacked communism, conservatism and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far-right. Fascism is “a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism” built on a complex range of theoretical and cultural influences.
He distinguishes an inter-war period in which it manifested itself in elite-led but populist “armed party” politics opposing socialism and liberalism and promising radical politics to rescue the nation from decadence. Fascist philosophies vary by application, but remain distinct by one theoretic commonality. Hungarian-American historian and Holocaust survivor, argues that there is no such thing as generic fascism. National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy are more different than similar.
Fascism in the early 1920s was influenced by both left and right, conservative and anti-conservative, national and supranational, rational and anti-rational. The more a person deems absolute equality among all people to be a desirable condition, the further left he or she will be on the ideological spectrum. The more a person considers inequality to be unavoidable or even desirable, the further to the right he or she will be”. A major element of fascist ideology that has been deemed to be far-right is its stated goal to promote the right of a supposedly superior people to dominate, while purging society of supposedly inferior elements.
We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the ‘right,’ a fascist century”. Mussolini stated that fascism’s position on the political spectrum was not a serious issue for fascists: “Fascism, sitting on the right, could also have sat on the mountain of the center These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged meaning: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit. We don’t give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words”. Major Italian groups politically on the right, especially rich landowners and big business, feared uprising by groups on the left such as sharecroppers and labour unions. They welcomed Fascism and supported its violent suppression of opponents on the left. The accommodation of the political right into the Italian Fascist movement in the early 1920s created internal factions within the movement. Italy while retaining the existing elites.
1943, Mussolini was rescued by German forces. Mussolini as head of state. Mussolini sought to re-radicalize Italian Fascism, declaring that the Fascist state had been overthrown because Italian Fascism had been subverted by Italian conservatives and the bourgeoisie. Then the new Fascist government proposed the creation of workers’ councils and profit-sharing in industry, although the German authorities, who effectively controlled northern Italy at this point, ignored these measures and did not seek to enforce them.
José Antonio Primo de Rivera said: “asically the Right stands for the maintenance of an economic structure, albeit an unjust one, while the Left stands for the attempt to subvert that economic structure, even though the subversion thereof would entail the destruction of much that was worthwhile”. 1944 that “the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist'”. 1946: “Should we now place Stalinist Russia in the same category as Hitlerite Germany? Should we say that she is Fascist? 2005 that “fascism” is the “most misused, and over-used word, of our times”.